2 - 2 - 4 Klazomenian Pottery

@Together with the end of Wild Goat Style, black figure techinique was introduced to workshops in North Ionia, probably at Klazomenai. While early Klazomenian sarcophagi, which will be discussed, retained wild goat style, this influenece rarely can be found in the black figure vessels [1]. Clay is brownish and white slip is added on earlier examples. Purple and white are used more freely than on Athenian pottery.

Tuebingen Group and other painters of earlier period chose amphorae, pyxides and krateres and most surface is covered with decoration. On the main picture often has a line of women hand in hand and because musicians sometimes attends the scene, this may represent a dance. On the shoulder and neck have friezes of sphinxes or sirens. Crescend pattern favoured in Fikellura workshops also depicted on these vases, though Klazomenian painters paint the crescend with white and purple alternately. These vases are found from Klazomenai and other East Greek sites, as well as from Naukratis and dated to the mid sixth century.

Following the Petrie Group preferred slender amphorae. The neck generally has an animal figure on either side and the body often has a line of women or occasionally Satyrs and Maenades. On the lower body has animals of prumped body. Less examples are found from Klazomenai while Naukratis and Tell Daphnae produced more founds.

The near contemporary the Urla Group preferred ovoid bodied amphorae, on which paneled picture, not friezes, is arranged. On the neck has a huge palmette on either side and the body often has mythological scenes, such as Circe and Odysseus, Oidipous and Sphinx and Prometheus and Hephaistos.

The Knipovitch Group uses similar composition, though the body has a forequarter of winged horse or simply scale pattern. Vessels of both the Urla and Knipovitch Group are even found from the Black Sea area.

Contemporary the Enmann Class has unique style. White is rarely used and hydriai, oinochoai and askoi are also produced, other than ovoid-bodied amphorae. Decoration on amphorae is only done within panels with various subjects, such as Komasts, Satyrs, Sirens, Sphinxes, goats and octopuses. Since vessels of this class are rarely found from Klazomenai and most are found from the Black Sea area, such as from Berezan, these could be made not at Klazomenai but at the Black Sea area.

Klazomenian Sarcophagi

Other than these vessles, Klazomenian workshops also produced clay sarcophagi with figure decoration [2]. Decoration is arranged on the upper rim. Although clay for sarcophagi is rough, cream white or yellow slip is painted over the rim. Black paint is sometimes turned to reddish brown because of bad firing

Width of the rim of the Monastirakia type, earliest Klazomenian example, is only 8-9cm and the decoration is simple patterns such as meander and egg and dart pattern. The following Borelli Painter's sarcophagi have rims broader at the upper side which are divided with decorative friezes. Although he also used some simple patterns on his earlier works, he gradually introduced outline animal figures recalls the wild goat style. His later sarcophagi have human figures.

Even on contemporary sarcophagi, filling ornaments rarely used for the scenes with human figure, while the background of the scenes with animals is still filled with many patterns taken from the wild goat style. Although the human figures similar to those of black figure technique, details are represented by reserved lines. We cannot identify any particular mythological scene, but winged horses are sometimes depicted with departure scenes.

The Altenburg Painter's sarcophagi have much wider rims at the upper side. His style is closer to Athenian black figure and he even introduced red figure technique, though he used white ground instead. Quality of the sarcophagi by his followers, such as the Hopkinson Painter, was getting worse and the production of the painted sarcophagi soon abandoned.

Most are found from around Klazomenai, though there are several founds from Ephesos and Rhodes. This makes scholars believe these sarcophagi were made at Klazomenai. For the chronology, the carrier of the Borelli Painter probably started at c.540, while the latest, Hopkinson Painter, worked until the second quarter of the fifth century.

[1] For the basic study on the Klazomenian pottery, see, Cook, R. M. "A List Of Clazomenian Pottery", BSA 47 (1952) pp.123-152, and see also, Cook, J. M., "Old Smyrna" BSA 60 (1965) pp.114-153.
[2] For Klazomenian sarcophagi, see, Cook,R.M. "Clazomenian sarcophagi, Kerameus 3" (1981).