Doric and Ionic orders

There are two main orders in Greek Temples, regardless of their scale. The Ionic order was developed in Ionian regions of the west coast of Asia Minor, the Doric order was favoured in Dorian area, though the basic element is same.

The platform, Krepis, has three steps and the upper step is called stylobates, on which columns were built. In the Doric order the shaft, Kion, was settled on stylobates, on the other hand, the shaft of Ionic order rested on a base, Speira. The former has slight bulge called Enthasis and usually 20 swallow flutes, Rabdotos, the latter has 24 deeper flutes.

The capital, Kionokranon, resting on the shaft clearly marks the difference of these orders. The Doric capital surmount the column through a convex moulding, Echinus, above this is a flat rectangular slab Abacus. The Ionic capital has two volutes arranged symmetrically and egg pattern below it, and thinner abacus above them.

The entablature supported by the columns are composed of three parts. The lowest element is Epistylion, in Doric order has a band, Tainia, on the upper part, from which the ornaments, Regula, composed of six drops hang down at regular intervals. In the Ionic order has three bands with same height, though slightly overlapping.

The middle element is Zophoros. The Doric temple has plates,Triglyph, with two vertical graves over the Regulae, and between these plate, there are broader plates, Metope, sometimes have relief sculptures. The Ionic temple has no ornament or continuous relief sculpture.

The highest part, Geison, is thinner than other part and slightly projected. The Geison of Doric temple has same ornaments, Mutulus, as regula under the eaves with every Triglyphs and Metopes. The Ionic temple has toothlike ornament on it. The triangular part surrounded by the Geison and ridge beams is called Tympanon, in which the group of sculptures are arranged. Acroteria, flower or figure sculptures, stand on the summit and corners of the pediments.

  Barbara A. Barletta, "The Origins of the Greek Architectural Orders" (2001)